Every company, large and small, will need the services of an auditor at some point. There are many different types of audit available but the most common is the internal audit. This type of review can be defined as follows:
“An internal audit is an independent appraisal or examination designed to evaluate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes for information systems that support an organization’s operations.”
Basically, an internal audit is risk management, or a cleaning of house. Your house. It is a way to uncover any issues before they spiral out of control. Over the years, internal audits have also changed into something more than just an accountability check. Today, these reviews are used for many different purposes including intelligence gathering and pre-auditing to reduce downtime. Internal auditors perform a wide variety of activities that require specialized training, knowledge and skills. Their work overlaps with that of management and financial auditors and their duty is to provide the best audit approach for the company. So, dig in, because by the time you reach the end of this article, you are going to know everything pertaining to the internal audit and auditors. You might also want to understand the role of the comptroller in the audit chain.
- How do Internal Audits Work?
- What are the 4 types of audit?
- What are the four types of audits?
- What is the role of an auditor?
- What is the role of an internal auditor?
- What is the difference between an Internal and an External auditor?
- Who performs third party audits?
- Who is involved in first party audits?
- What is a second party audit?
- Caveats, disclaimers, internal auditing & internal audit functions
How do Internal Audits Work?
Internal audits can be conducted in a variety of ways including:
- Desk Review – The review is performed by someone who has knowledge about how an organization should operate and what policies or procedures should be in place.
- Root Cause Analysis – The audit representative is tasked with making recommendations for how to avoid the same problem again in the future. This includes making suggestions for new policies and procedures that need to be instituted, or existing ones that need to be changed.
- Profitability Review – Evaluation of profitability by considering different aspects of an organization’s operations with the goal of recommending improvements.
- Competitor Analysis – Gathering information about how an organization stacks up against their competitors with the goal of finding out what they are doing better, or worse.
- Purchasing Review – Examining all aspects of purchasing to recommend alternatives that may improve profit margins and efficiencies.
What are the 4 types of audit?
There are four main types of audits: financial, performance, compliance and fraud. Financial audits examine an organization’s financial statements to ensure they are accurate. They also look for any irregularities. A performance audit looks at how well an organization is meeting their goals and objectives. Compliance audits make sure that the company is following all the applicable laws and regulations. Fraud audits are conducted to uncover any fraudulent activities that may be taking place in the company.
What are the four types of audits?
Financial audits: A financial audit is just what it implies. It is an examination of an organization’s financial statements to ensure that they are accurate and that no irregularities have occurred. This type of audit will focus on the following:
- The accuracy of the financial statements
- Compliance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
- Compliance with laws and regulations
- Going concern of the company
- Proper recording of transactions
Performance audits: A performance audit is an examination of how well an organization is meeting their goals and objectives. This type of audit is subjective and looks at how well policies and procedures are being followed. They will focus on the following:
- The management’s ability to meet goals and objectives
- How effective policies and procedures are in meeting the organization’s goals and objectives
Compliance audits: A compliance audit ensures that an organization is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. This type of audit is very important as it can help to avoid fines and penalties. They will focus on the following:
- Compliance with laws and regulations
- Licensing and permitting requirements
- Health and safety regulations
- Environmental (EPA)regulations
Fraud audits: A fraud audit is a specialized type of compliance audit that is conducted to uncover any fraudulent activities that may be taking place in the company. This type of audit can help to protect an organization from financial losses.
What is the role of an auditor?
An auditor’s role is to conduct reviews and investigations in order to provide an independent view of an organization’s financial statements, operations, compliance, and governance processes. They also work to identify any potential issues so that they can be addressed before they cause any real damage.
What is the role of an internal auditor?
An internal auditor’s role is to conduct reviews and investigations of an organization’s information systems with the goal of improving efficiency and effectiveness. They also work to identify any potential issues so that they can be addressed before they become liabilities.
Simply put, their job is to help the company they are working for run more effectively and efficiently. This includes reviewing and assessing the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. They will also look at information systems that support the organization’s operations. In addition, internal auditors are responsible for investigating any potential fraud or misconduct.
What is the difference between an Internal and an External auditor?
Internal auditors are employed by the company that they are conducting audits for. External auditors are not employed by the company, but rather, they are hired by an external body such as a regulator or an entity that has some form of oversight over the company. Also, external auditors are required to use International Standards on Auditing for their work, while internal auditors may perform audits using any recognized standard that they feel works best for them.
Who performs third party audits?
Third parties are companies that have no affiliation with an organization being audited. They are hired to perform audits from an external perspective. These companies might also offer other services such as risk management and training, but their main focus is on conducting audits. Many times, they will be contracted to conduct regular reviews of a company’s operations over the course of several years.
Who is involved in first party audits?
First party audits are conducted by the company’s own employees. They are designed to ensure that all processes, policies, procedures and standards being used in an organization are being followed properly.
What is a second party audit?
Second party audits are similar to first party audits in that both of them are usually performed by the company itself. However, second party audits are designed to compare a company’s performance to that of its competitors, or the industry in general.
The difference is that second party audits are more proactive in nature. They will try and identify any opportunities where they can improve their own operations based on the information they gather from the external audit of their competitors.
Caveats, disclaimers, internal auditing & internal audit functions
At ESG | The Report, we believe that we can help make the world a more sustainable place through the power of education. We have covered many topics in this article and want to be clear that any reference to, or mention of internal control processes vs internal audit departments, internal audit department vs financial advisory, institute of internal auditors for senior management, global network of emerging risks, provide services to audit committees, consulting firms who audit internal, robotic process automation vs objective assurance, valuable resources for business models using advanced analytics, the entire organization is deeply involved, risk based approach for improving productivity, own acts of management, internal control advice & reliability, manage risk of advisory boards or stakeholders in the context of this article is purely for informational purposes and not to be misconstrued as investment or any other legal advice or an endorsement of any particular company or service. Neither ESG | The Report, it’s contributors or their respective companies or any of its members gives any warranty with respect to the information herein, and shall have no responsibility for any decisions made, or action taken or not taken which relates to matters covered by ESG | The Report. Thank you for reading, and we hope that you found this article useful in your quest to understand ESG and sustainable business practices. We look forward to living in a sustainable world.
Research & Curation
Dean Emerick is a curator on sustainability issues with ESG The Report, an online resource for professionals focusing on ESG principles. Their primary goal is to provide resources to help middle market companies, SMEs and SMBs transition to a more sustainable future.